White Phosphorus Munition Use in Contemporary Conflicts: A Brief Analysis Within the Context of International Law

April 27, 2024

The paper discusses the use of white phosphorus (WP) munitions in recent conflict zones such as Ukraine, Gaza, and Nagorno-Karabakh, highlighting the significant legal, ethical, and humanitarian issues it raises. It argues for critically reassessing white phosphorus use in warfare to ensure it aligns with humanitarian values and public ethics.

Navigating the Cyber-Biosecurity Landscape: A National Security Imperative for India

December 21, 2023

The ever-evolving landscape of national security threats has expanded to encompass traditional geopolitical and military risks and challenges arising from the cyber and biological domains termed cyber-biosecurity. This hybrid concept of cyber-biosecurity emerges as an innovative fusion, encapsulating the rapidly converging disciplines of cybersecurity and biosecurity.

Diminishing Red Shadows: Assessing the Descent of Left Wing Extremism in India

The trend of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) in India demonstrates a downward trajectory. Despite this, sporadic incidents of violence result in casualties, and the evolving tactics employed by insurgents are being met with adept responses from the security apparatus. Against this backdrop, the current paper aims to integrate the strategies used in counterinsurgency operations against Indian Maoists into a broader framework. This includes examining their implications within the wider spectrum of global non-state and conventional military engagements.

November 17, 2023

From Margins to Mainstream: The Enduring Threat of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan

October 20, 2023

Since the Soviet incursion into Afghanistan, Pakistan has been strategically invested in its neighbouring country, seeking to establish a sphere of influence there. Pakistan has employed a multifaceted approach to realise this ambition over the years. This has ranged from backing the Afghan Mujahedeen during the Soviet-Afghan War to fostering extremist and terrorist organisations within the region, culminating in its extensive support for the Afghan Taliban throughout the 1990s.

WHO's Pandemic Treaty and Global Health Governance: Opportunities and Challenges for India

FINS paper Cover

ABSTRACT: This policy paper offers an in-depth study of the ongoing negotiations for the Pandemic Treaty. The treaty has been proposed as a strategic response to manage global health crises in the post-COVID-19 era and is being developed under the World Health Organization's (WHO) purview. The paper is segmented into five parts: Part I recounts the inception and evolution of the Pandemic Treaty negotiations within the WHO's framework. It summarises the proposed treaty's objectives and major provisions currently under negotiation.

September 26, 2023


July 28, 2023

“Over the course of time, there has been a substantial increase in human dependence on space systems to facilitate diverse activities ranging from governance to defence. Contemporary applications of satellites encompass meteorology, communications, navigation, and remote sensing, all of which are utilized on a routine basis. Owing to the profound reliance of nation-states on these space systems, they have emerged as alluring targets for military endeavours by adversarial entities. Inflicting physical harm upon outer space systems through conventional means poses significant challenges.

'Ethico-Political' Implications of Drones in 21st-Century Conflicts

July 08, 2023

Drone technology is increasingly becoming more capable of autonomous violence and destruction. With drones heralding a new age of warfare and a change like military technology, it is crucial to evaluate drones' ethical and political implications. This is because drones are capable of integrating advanced algorithmic and computer systems, thus allowing a level of mathematical precision to military operations that have never been seen before. Proponents of drones would say that this allows for a reduction in unintended casualties.

Targeted and Forgotten: The Hazara Shia Community's Struggle in Afghanistan

May 26, 2023

The Hazara Shia community has endured widespread discrimination and systematic sectarian violence since the establishment of modern Afghanistan in 1747. A long history of persecution endured by the Hazara community and their status as a vulnerable ethnic group over centuries in Afghanistan is now part of Central Asia’s folklore. The Hazaras have suffered from centuries of discrimination, violence, and systemic oppression, ranging from historical atrocities under the rule of Amir Abdul Rahman to targeted attacks by the Taliban and the Islamic State of Khorasan Province.

Beyond China: Exploring Asia's Emergence In Space

May 22, 2023

The 21st century is known as the Asian Century. The terminology ‘Rise of Asia’ is mostly viewed synonymously with the ‘Rise of China’. However, other Asian states are also contributing to shaping this rise. Over the past two decades, Asian countries have experienced impressive economic and technological growth. Despite the global financial crisis in the mid-2000s, Asia has managed to revive itself, albeit with limited impact.


September 26, 2022

India Bangladesh relations have emerged as a role model of the bilateral relationship in the context of India's relations with its neighbours. There exist differences between the two on many issues of mutual concern, which is natural between any neighbouring countries, yet, both have taken a conscious decision to move forward on issues that would turn around the economies of the two countries. Not surprisingly, infrastructure, trade and people-to-people contact have received priority. The two countries are working on resolving the long-standing Teesta river water sharing.