The ever-evolving landscape of national security threats has expanded to encompass traditional geopolitical and military risks and challenges arising from the cyber and biological domains termed cyber-biosecurity. This hybrid concept of cyber-biosecurity emerges as an innovative fusion, encapsulating the rapidly converging disciplines of cybersecurity and biosecurity.
Since the Soviet incursion into Afghanistan, Pakistan has been strategically invested in its neighbouring country, seeking to establish a sphere of influence there. Pakistan has employed a multifaceted approach to realise this ambition over the years. This has ranged from backing the Afghan Mujahedeen during the Soviet-Afghan War to fostering extremist and terrorist organisations within the region, culminating in its extensive support for the Afghan Taliban throughout the 1990s.
Drone technology is increasingly becoming more capable of autonomous violence and destruction. With drones heralding a new age of warfare and a change like military technology, it is crucial to evaluate drones' ethical and political implications. This is because drones are capable of integrating advanced algorithmic and computer systems, thus allowing a level of mathematical precision to military operations that have never been seen before. Proponents of drones would say that this allows for a reduction in unintended casualties.
The Hazara Shia community has endured widespread discrimination and systematic sectarian violence since the establishment of modern Afghanistan in 1747. A long history of persecution endured by the Hazara community and their status as a vulnerable ethnic group over centuries in Afghanistan is now part of Central Asia’s folklore. The Hazaras have suffered from centuries of discrimination, violence, and systemic oppression, ranging from historical atrocities under the rule of Amir Abdul Rahman to targeted attacks by the Taliban and the Islamic State of Khorasan Province.
The 21st century is known as the Asian Century. The terminology ‘Rise of Asia’ is mostly viewed synonymously with the ‘Rise of China’. However, other Asian states are also contributing to shaping this rise. Over the past two decades, Asian countries have experienced impressive economic and technological growth. Despite the global financial crisis in the mid-2000s, Asia has managed to revive itself, albeit with limited impact.
India Bangladesh relations have emerged as a role model of the bilateral relationship in the context of India's relations with its neighbours. There exist differences between the two on many issues of mutual concern, which is natural between any neighbouring countries, yet, both have taken a conscious decision to move forward on issues that would turn around the economies of the two countries. Not surprisingly, infrastructure, trade and people-to-people contact have received priority. The two countries are working on resolving the long-standing Teesta river water sharing.
The threat of the intentional or deliberate use of disease pathogens or biological agents emanating from both rogue state actors and violent non-state actors (NSAs) remains a major concern for national and international security. By violent non-state actors, we generally mean armed insurgent groups, criminal syndicates, apocalyptic religious cults and jihadi terrorist groups and individuals.
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has presented a Draft National Space Transportation Policy-2020 in the public domain for comments. This issue brief is a humble attempt toward that effect. It identifies why ISRO has come out (timing) with this policy and offers some observations on this draft policy.
The world is witnessing a massive technological expansion. The advancement is such that we have entered into a phase where separating technologies from our lives is nearly impossible. These technologies are now programmed in such a manner that it can easily modify and change the behavioural pattern of individuals by greatly influencing their understanding, thinking and decision-making ability over a short period of time. Technology was created for the advancement of the human race, but every coin has two sides. It was created by humans who have motifs.